By

Ketogenic Diet and Hypoglycemia

ketogenic-diet-and-hypoglycemiaGrief had me wide awake at 3 a.m. on Saturday, I was trying to figure out which chores I could cram into the 14 hours before I returned to the land of migraine disability. I had admitted defeat with the ketogenic diet. One more meal was all I had left on the diet; dinner would take me back to migraine as usual.

Ketogenic Diet and Hypoglycemia: Cause and Effect

Frustratingly, even though the ketogenic diet reduced my migraine attack severity and enabled me to be more functional, it also caused hypoglycemia—which is in itself a migraine trigger. Despite a month of various fixes, I couldn’t get it under control. (I’ve actually been wrestling with it for two months. That awful nausea I attributed to dehydration was actually hypoglycemia. The wrung out feeling I woke up with each day was the fallout from hypoglycemia-triggered migraine attacks that came on while I slept.)

How I Discovered Hypoglycemia Was the Problem

After increasing to 2500 calories to gain some weight back, I woke up each day ravenous and shaky. This seemed odd—how could I be hungrier than when I ate 1700 calories a day? Knowing that a ketogenic diet could cause hypoglycemia, I began researching. Not only did I discover that it was likely I had hypoglycemia, but the nausea and accompanying symptoms of the previous month fit the pattern of reactive hypoglycemia perfectly.

Reactive Hypoglycemia

Reactive, or postprandial, hypoglycemia occurs two to four hours after eating. It’s usually a crash after eating a meal high in carbohydrates. Although I wasn’t eating many carbohydrates, my blood sugar was so low the rest of the time that I’d crash after my meal each day. It would start two hours after the meal, but I’m so used to ignoring vague physical symptoms that I didn’t notice until they got bad. Which they did like clockwork six hours after eating every night.

Treating Hypoglycemia

The treatment of mild hypoglycemia is relatively easy: eat small, frequent meals and eat a dose of carbs whenever your blood sugar dips too low. The latter was obviously out (it’s hard to dose up with carbs when you are limited to 15 grams a day). The former didn’t work for me either, since I still had a migraine attack every time I ate, so I could eat no more than two meals a day.

Desperately Searching for Fixes

I spent a month trying every possible fix I could imagine: increasing from one to two meals a day, eating the same ratio with less protein and more carbs, a lower ratio, 100 calorie snacks that didn’t seem to trigger migraine attacks (they did, the attacks just built slowly), eating more in the morning, 1 gram doses of sugar, more calories… Nearly everything worked for a day, then became ineffective. I tested my blood sugar so often that my fingertips developed callouses.

Magical Thinking

An idea came to mind a couple weeks ago that sounded like pure magical thinking: What if I increasing my ratio to 4:1 (that’s 90% fat) made the diet more effective and enabled me to eat small meals without triggering migraine attacks? I ran it past Hart and my naturopath. They both agreed with the magical thinking hypothesis.

Going for Broke

I didn’t give up on Saturday. I was clinging so desperately to the good hours that I decided to give the 4:1 ratio a shot before calling it quits. I began yesterday by cutting my protein in half so I could keep a relatively high carbohydrate content for the transition period. By evening, I felt remarkably good. I managed three 114 calorie snacks in less than three hours without a migraine attack. A migraine attack didn’t even come on in the night.

Today’s meal plan increased the protein and decreased the carbs some. Four 114 calorie snacks later, no migraine attack ensued and my blood sugar was fine (still on the low end, but manageable). Things went downhill when I ate an actual meal—it triggered a migraine attack and my blood sugar tanked. Several small snacks helped me recover and I’m up and thinking again.

Research Soothes My Worries (a Bit)

Today I learned that a person’s blood sugar range tends to be lower on a ketogenic diet than it normally is. Anything below 70 mg/dL is typically considered hypoglycemic, but 55-75 mg/dL is typical on a 4:1 ketogenic diet. This isn’t a cause for concern as long as the person doesn’t have hypoglycemia symptoms. Also, it can take a full week for one’s blood sugar to stabilize when starting on or changing a ketogenic diet. That means all my dietary tweaks have probably done just the opposite of what I intended. (I am not a medical professional—PLEASE don’t take my word for any of this information. If you’re struggling with a ketogenic diet and hypoglycemia, work with health care professionals to determine the best approach for you. I’m being very careful and consulting with doctors and dietitians as I attempt this unorthodox experiment. Still I worry my low blood sugar is causing long-term harm to my brain. I’m seeing an endocrinologist next week and am going to try get yet another opinion from a neurologist at an epilepsy clinic. Maybe then I’ll find peace of mind.)

Optimism

Obviously, there are a lot of kinks to work out, but I feel like I’m getting closer to getting them sorted. Although most of my earlier fixes didn’t last long, they were all focused on increasing my carbohydrate content. Eating more frequent meals is a far more sustainable option—and one that seems like it could work. I’ve come close to admitting defeat countless times in the last two weeks. I have shed so many tears that I’m distrustful of possible indications of success. But the signs are promising, so I’m still hopeful.

By

Updates to Post on Migraine Drugs & Cognitive Dysfunction, Dementia

I accidentally published an old draft of the post on migraine drugs and cognitive dysfunction and dementia is older adults. Here’s the substantially updated version.

By

Some Migraine Drugs Linked to Cognitive Impairment, Dementia in Older Adults

migraine drugs linked to dementia, cognitive impairment in older adultsThis post was updated at 12:40 p.m. PDT on April 19, 2016.

What kind of long-term impact will taking migraine drugs have on my body? Am I trading a better present for more problems in the future?

These and similar questions have flitted through my mind for years. I usually push them aside—I need these drugs to function, so I don’t feel like I have much choice. Besides, an abstract future worry is so vague that it doesn’t seem to require much attention. Thanks to new research, that worry no longer seems abstract or vague.

Cognitive impairment and dementia in older adults have been linked to anticholinergic drugs, which block the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, in an increasing number of studies over the last decade. Some popular antihistamines, antidepressants, and anti-nausea meds used as migraine drugs have anticholinergic effects.

The research may not be cause for alarm, which I’ll explain in a moment. The first question you want answered is likely: Which drugs put me at risk?

Migraine Drugs With Anticholinergic Effects

This list contains drugs I’m aware of people using for migraine, but it is not an exhaustive list of anticholinergics. Indiana University has a more complete list of anticholinergic drugs (PDF). A JAMA article on the topic also includes Vivactil (protriptyline) and Compazine (prochlorperazine). ACB score refers to “anticholinergic cognitive burden,” which determines if a drug has mild or moderate anticholinergic effects.

Mild Anticholinergic Effect (ACB Score 1)

  • Actiq (fentanyl)
  • Duragesic (fentanyl)
  • Effexor (venlafaxine)
  • Flexeril (vyclobenzaprine)
  • Immodium (loperamide)
  • Valium (diazepam)
  • Wellbutrin (bupropion)
  • Xanax (alprazolam)

Moderate Anticholinergic Effect (ACB Scores 2 & 3)

  • Advil PM (diphenhydramine)
  • Atarax (hydroxyzine)
  • Benadryl (diphenhydramine)
  • Dramamine (dimenhydrinate)
  • Elavil (amitriptyline)
  • Flexeril (cyclobenzaprine)
  • Gravol (dimenhydrinate)
  • Norflex (orphenadrine)
  • Norpramin (desipramine)
  • Pamelor (nortriptyline)
  • Periactin (cyproheptadine)
  • Phenergan (promethazine)
  • Sinequan (doxepin)
  • Tegretol (carbamazepine)
  • Tylenol PM (diphenhydramine)
  • Vistaril (hydroxyzine)

Anticholinergic Burden Unknown

(have an anticholinergic effect, but do not have an ACB score)

  • Compazine (prochlorperazine)
  • Vivactil (protriptyline)

Anticholinergic Drugs, Cognitive Impairment, and Dementia: The Research

Keep in mind that:

  1. These studies do not provethat anticholinergic drugs cause cognitive impairment or dementia. They have found that a link exists between taking the drugs and cognitive impairment or dementia.
  2. All published studies have focused on older adults, most with an average participant age in the early 70s. It is speculated that increased age makes the body more susceptible to these effects, possibly because these drugs permeate the blood-brain barrier more readily in older people.

Risk depends on strength of cholinergic effect

Drugs with a mild cholinergic effect (an ACB of 1) can cause cognitive impairment in older adults within 90 days of continuous use. Those with a strong cholinergic effect (ACB of 2 or 3) can cause cognitive impairment in 60 days of continuous use. Non-continuous use can also have an impact, though the exact length of time varies. Cognitive effects were increased with the number of anticholinergic drugs a patient took. (See Just 2 Months’ Exposure to Anticholinergics Affects Cognition)

Dose matters (somewhat)

The higher the drug’s dose, the greater the risk, according to a study published in 2015. However, even at the minimum effective dose, taking the drugs for prolonged periods were linked to a greater likelihood of cognitive impairment or dementia than for those not taking anticholinergic drugs. “This is not excessive use,” said the lead author Shelly Gray, PharmD, from the University of Washington. “Many of these agents are used chronically, and chronic use—even at low doses—would put you in the highest risk category.” (See ‘Strongest Evidence Yet’ Links Anticholinergic Drugs, Dementia)

Changes in the brain

Brain imaging found lower brain metabolism and reduced brain sizes among participants taking anticholinergics, as reported in a study published this week. Participants taking the drugs also scored lower on cognitive tests than those not taking the drugs. This is the first study looking at the underlying biology of the link identified by earlier research. (See IU Scientists: Brain Scans Link Physical Changes to Cognitive Risks of Widely Used Class of Drugs)

Age of participants

The published studies I found are focused on older adults. Researchers believe that a person’s central nervous system becomes more sensitive to anticholinergic medications with age. It could be that younger patients don’t have the same risks, but that’s uncertain. This warning from Dr. Gray haunts me: ‘There is no data on how these drugs may affect younger people, but I personally will avoid taking anticholinergic agents.”

I found one study presented at a conference that looked at the ACB of younger patients with chronic pain. Participants with chronic pain had significantly higher ACB scores than healthy participants and their cognitive function appeared to be affected. The burden was greatest in patients aged 30 to 39. (See Pain Patients at Cognitive Risk From Anticholinergic Burden?)

Cognitive Impairment vs. Dementia

Cognitive impairment and dementia are very different things. Several studies show that cognitive impairment due to the drugs could be reversible. The drugs could magnify symptoms of an already present mild dementia or bring symptoms on earlier than would have happened otherwise. However, brain atrophy, as found in the study published this week, doesn’t sound reversible.

What’s the Actual Risk?

No one knows for sure. The research is concerning, but is far from conclusive. Many questions still remain. Talk to your doctors and pharmacists for advice that’s best suited to you—it will depend on your age, the medications you take and why you take them, how effective the medications are for you, what alternative medications might help you, and other health problems you may have. Please don’t stop taking your medications without first talking to your health care providers—doing so could put you at risk of other problems.

I plan to ask all my doctors and pharmacists for input. My gynecologist and endocrinologist haven’t prescribed anticholinergics, but I trust them both and want them to weigh in on this, too.

Why I’m Sharing This Research

I freaked out when I first learned about this research last year. I started to write about it, then set it aside. I decided the research was too inconclusive to scare people by reporting it. When I saw the study published this week, I changed my mind. The research is still very preliminary and I don’t want people to panic. Nonetheless, patients should be aware that this research exists so they can make an informed decision about which medications are best for them. Your doctor will probably tell you that it’s not cause for concern, but it’s better to be able to ask them about it than remain completely in the dark.

Kerrie’s Uneasy Truce

The two medications I take daily, cyproheptadine and Wellbutrin, are on the list. My paternal grandmother had Alzheimer’s and I have been afraid of the disease for as long as I can remember. I doubt I would have started the drugs if I’d known about this research. I’m not sure that’s a good thing. These medications allow me to get out of bed. The past four years have been relatively manageable thanks to them. They have improved my quality of life enough that I’ve been able to aggressively pursue other treatments.

I was terrified when I started writing this post, but I have calmed down considerably the more I have learned. This is preliminary research. Cause and effect hasn’t been established. I’m 28 years younger than the average patient in the studies. I’m actively trying to find alternative treatments to these medications. Migraine research is making tremendous strides in preventive treatment. Of course I’m still a little worried that I’m trading the present for the future. I’d be worried about that even without these drugs.

REFERENCES

American Academy of Pain Medicine (AAPM) 29th Annual Meeting. Poster 221. Presented April 12, 2013.

Anderson, P. (2013, May 22). Just 2 Months’ Exposure to Anticholinergics Affects Cognition. Medscape. Retrieved 4/18/16 from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/804558.

Anderson, P. (2013, Apr 15). Pain Patients at Cognitive Risk From Anticholinergic Burden? Medscape. Retrieved 4/18/16 from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/782520.

Cai, X., Campbell, N., Khan, B., Callahan, C., & Boustani, M. (2013). Long-term anticholinergic use and the aging brain. Alzheimer’s & Dementia9(4), 377-385.

Hughes, S. (2015, Jan 27). ‘Strongest Evidence Yet’ Links Anticholinergic Drugs, Dementia. Medscape. Retrieved 4/18/16 from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/838788.

Gray, S. L., Anderson, M. L., Dublin, S., Hanlon, J. T., Hubbard, R., Walker, R., … & Larson, E. B. (2015). Cumulative use of strong anticholinergics and incident dementia: a prospective cohort study. JAMA internal medicine,175(3), 401-407.

Indiana University (2016, Apr 18). IU scientists: Brain scans link physical changes to cognitive risks of widely used class of drugs [Press release]. Retrieved 4/18/16 from http://news.medicine.iu.edu/releases/2016/04/anticholinergics-brain-effects.shtml.

Risacher, S. L., McDonald, B. C., Tallman, E. F., West, J. D., Farlow, M. R., Unverzagt, F. W., … & Saykin, A. J. (2016). Association Between Anticholinergic Medication Use and Cognition, Brain Metabolism, and Brain Atrophy in Cognitively Normal Older Adults. JAMA Neurology, April 2016 DOI:10.1001/jamaneurol.2016.0580

Salahudeen, M. S. and Nishtala, P. S. (2016) Examination and Estimation of Anticholinergic Burden: Current Trends and Implications for Future Research. Drugs & Aging, April 2016 DOI: 10.1007/s40266-016-0362-5

By

Ketogenic Diet for Migraine: A Comprehensive Introduction

I’ve told you about my difficulties starting a ketogenic diet for migraine and have tried to assess whether it is working for me, but haven’t told you how the diet works or why I decided to try it. Here’s a comprehensive introduction to using a ketogenic diet for migraine. It’s based on five months of research and more than three months of living with the diet.

Why a ketogenic diet?

Diet and headache was one of the presentations at the American Headache Society conference last November. Topics included biogenic amines (including tyramine and histamine), MSG, food allergies (actual immune responses rather than food sensitivities), gluten, low fat diets, a ketogenic diet, a high omega-3/low omega-6 diet, and a low-sodium diet. The research on a ketogenic diet for migraine was small and the results weren’t overwhelming. But I’d tried almost everything else the presenter mentioned and was feeling desperate. In the last couple years, I’ve heard more anecdotal evidence of it being effective for migraine and my naturopath recommended I look into it.

This was not my first flirtation with a ketogenic diet for migraine. I’ve looked into it multiple times over the last decade, but couldn’t find enough information to do one on my own. Until recently, the information was tightly controlled by doctors and dietitians who work with epilepsy patients. That’s because ketogenic diets are not nutritionally complete and can have serious side effects. As ketogenic diets have become really popular for weight loss, more information has become available. Simultaneously, some of the gatekeepers of the diet for epilepsy began to share details. Here’s what I’ve learned.

What’s a ketogenic diet?

Ketogenic diets shift the body’s fuel source from carbohydrates to fat. Burning fat for fuel causes the body to produce a substance called ketones, which is why the diets are called ketogenic (keto = ketones, genic = producing). When you produce ketones, you are in a state called ketosis and your metabolism mimics fasting or starvation. While that doesn’t seem like it would be a good thing, it works pretty well for treating epilepsy. Medically, ketogenic diets have been in use for epilepsy for nearly 100 years. They are increasingly being used for other conditions, like brain tumors, traumatic brain injuries, and autism, and have recently become popular for weight loss.

What are the different types of ketogenic diets?

ketogenic diet percentagesThe classic medical ketogenic diet is 90% fat. It’s referred to as a 4:1 ketogenic diet—which means that for every four grams of fat, you eat one gram of protein+carbohydrate. This is not a high-protein diet; the goal is to just meet your recommended daily allowance of protein. Your carb count is whatever is leftover in the protein+carbohydrate equation.

That’s the classic ketogenic diet, but there are many variations. For epilepsy, a 3:1 ratio tends to be the starting point for infants and teenagers. The Modified Atkins Diet is becoming increasingly popular for epilepsy, particularly for adults; it contains about 63% of calories from fat. Ketogenic diets for weight loss aren’t as strict in their breakdown. They range from about 60% to 75% calories from fat, 15% to 30% calories from protein, and 5% to 10% calories from carbohydrates. A quick internet survey found that the typical weight loss formula is 75% fat, 20% protein, and 5% carbohydrates.

[click on chart to enlarge]

What’s the best ketogenic diet for migraine?

It depends on the person. Some people see results at lower levels of fat, while others need higher amounts. Start with the lowest ratio you can and work your way up. Readers have reported success on the Modified Atkins Diet. I didn’t get noticeable relief until I worked up to a 3.5:1 ratio; my migraine attacks were worse when I increased to a 3.75:1 ratio (possibly because my blood sugar got too low).

How long does it take to see migraine improvement on a ketogenic diet?

Some people see improvement within a week of starting the diet or increasing their ratio. Almost everyone who sees improvement sees it in the first month. However, it takes about three months for the metabolism to fully shift, so some people don’t see results until a few months in.

It’s also important to manage adverse effects, which could worsen migraine attacks. I became hypoglycemic on the diet and hypoglycemia is a migraine trigger. Since I got the hypoglycemia (mostly) under control, my migraine attacks have been less severe. I can even eat small amounts without triggering an attack.

How long do you have to say on a ketogenic diet for migraine?

Kids with epilepsy can often be on the diet for a year or two, then return to a fairly normal (though generally lower carbohydrate) diet. My dietitian said it often functions as a sort of reset, but does not require a permanent change. Less is known about how adults respond to the diet. In one book I read, a woman in her early 20s with epilepsy had been on the diet nine years with no plan to stop. In naturopathic circles, it is often talked about as a lifelong change. For now, I think it’s an individual thing depending on the severity of your symptoms, your triggers, and how long your migraine attacks have been at their current level.

Why are medical ketogenic diets successful?

Almost all the research is on epilepsy. No matter the illness, the answer is that no one actually knows. Researchers have tested many hypotheses in the last century, but have not come to any conclusions. Ketosis is the probable cause, but that hasn’t been proven. Some researchers speculate that ketosis isn’t actually what’s responsible for improvements, it’s just the visible marker of some other physiological change. In the study on a ketogenic diet for migraine presented at AHS, the benefit could have come from weight loss rather than ketosis.

Why are the risks of ketogenic diets?

Ketogenic diets are not nutritionally complete. Carbohydrates are so restricted that you can’t eat enough vegetables and fruit to get adequate nutrition, so supplementation is imperative. Side effects can range from mild annoyance to death. Although highly unlikely, patients have died in multiple studies of ketogenic diets for epilepsy. Those deaths are typically attributed to hidden metabolic disorders, but it’s still important to be aware of the potential risk.

Please, please do a lot of research before jumping into a ketogenic diet and consider working with a dietitian. I’ve had a DIY approach to my diet for years and would have done this one on my own had I thought I could safely manage the 4:1 ratio without a dietitian. I’m so glad I didn’t. Even working with two dietitians and a naturopath, having blood work every month, and being hypervigilant, I’ve had issues with my blood becoming too acidic, hypoglycemia (that went undiagnosed for five weeks despite the best efforts of my health care team), and wildly fluctuating liver enzymes and inflammation markers. While my migraine attacks have been better on the diet, I overall feel less healthy than before I started it.

The popular version of the diet is less potentially damaging to health than the classic medical version, but I’ve heard enough scary stories from smart people who have educated themselves on the diet to urge anyone considering it to work with a dietitian, at least to start.

What about weight loss?

This diet is popular for weight loss for a good reason—it works. Because the diet mimics starvation, it suppresses hunger. And if you’re doing a 4:1 or 3:1 ratio, you have to weigh everything you eat, so you know exactly how many calories you’re getting. Even though my dietitian kept increasing my calorie intake, I lost 20 pounds unintentionally. My weight finally stabilized when I got to 2,300 calories a day—600 calories more than my dietitian thought I should need and more than I’ve eaten in years. I have yet to gain any of the weight back.

Learn More About Ketogenic Diets

Google “ketogenic diet” or search for it on Amazon and you’ll find information for bodybuilders and people who want to lose weight. That might be the best approach for you, but I recommend starting with the epilepsy-related information. It provides a foundation that explains the medical uses for the diet, is based in solid science (whereas much of the popular information is from not-quite-accurate interpretations of research), includes rational assessments of risks, and explains how to follow the diet in a way that doesn’t otherwise compromise your health. The following resources contain excellent information and were my sources for this post.

Even if you read nothing else, start with these:

More good resources include:

  • The Charlie Foundation and Matthew’s Friends (Nonprofits started by parents of children with epilepsy who have benefited from ketogenic diets. Both sites have good introductions to the diets and helpful guidance. The Charlie Foundation’s information is written or reviewed by a leading dietitian in the field.)
  • Fighting Back With Fat (A book by two moms who have implemented ketogenic diets to treat their children’s epilepsy. *Amazon affiliate link)

By

Ketogenic Diet for Migraine: Is it Working?

ketogenic-diet-for-migraineBut is the diet helping??? I inadvertently edited out the answer to the question many of you were wondering when I wrote about the ketogenic diet for migraine last week. The answer is a resounding maybe. I have not achieved my primary goals—eating or drinking anything but water still triggers a migraine attack and I still eat only once a day. But small improvements are increasing my quality of life.

  • More responsive to migraine abortive meds: I still take Amerge and Midrin after every meal, but they are more effective than before starting the diet. I can usually function through the slowdown of early migraine symptoms that follow eating and sometimes barely feel the symptoms at all. One dose of Amerge and Midrin also manage some trigger foods that used to knock me out, but only if I eat them infrequently. I will soon experiment with taking Amerge sans Midrin after I eat.
  • Decreased pain levels: My migraine attack pain is a level 3 most of the time. It still reaches 4 occasionally, but not as frequently as before. I’ve had one 5 since starting the diet. Five years ago, this would have felt miraculous, but pain hasn’t been my worst migraine symptom since 2013. Before the diet, level 4 pain was the norm and 5 was a little more frequent, but not substantially.
  • Decreased fatigue: I am more functional during some migraine attacks. The improvement is minor. But I’ll take it given that the fatigue used to knock me flat. I also have less overall fatigue, which I’m guessing is because Amerge and Midrin are more effective.
  • Improved cognitive function. Again, this improvement is minor but noticeable. A migraine attack no longer means I can’t write or read somewhat complex information. I can only write rough drafts and can’t translate journal articles. I can, however, get the gist of journal articles and have no problem with information for the general public, like press releases.

Are you wondering why I’m staying on a diet that is causing me to lose too much weight and become malnourished, but is only kinda working? It’s because I’m not fully settled into the diet yet. Here’s why I’m sticking with it a little longer.

Three months for a full metabolic shift

The metabolism fully shifts from burning carbs to burning fat after three months of ketosis, according to my dietitian. Cellular and mitochondrial changes that happen at three months could impact my migraine attacks (for better or worse). April 15 is my three-month mark. I started the diet January 3, but wasn’t consistently in ketosis until the 15th.

Diet side effects

I’ve had a variety of issues implementing the diet and won’t be confident I’ve given it a good try until I’ve resolved them. The major nausea six hours I’ve gotten after eating every day for more than four weeks has been a huge burden. After working with two dietitians and my naturopath and trying numerous remedies, I think the issue is dehydration. Drinking 96 ounces of water a day is not enough; it looks like I need 128 ounces to stay hydrated on this diet.

Then there’s malnutrition. My blood work keeps coming back with levels that are way off in different areas. In January, my liver enzymes were alarmingly high. They looked good in February. Now they are high again, but not as high as in January. That’s just one example, but any of these extreme fluctuations within my body could be triggering migraine attacks. Many of these things can be supplemented, but that’s another problem, which I’ll explain in the supplements section below.

Drug and supplement side effects

Zofran: The nausea has me taking 8 mg to 16 mg of Zofran a day. Normally I take 4 mg or 8 mg sporadically. It’s unlikely, but that increase could be increasing my migraine attack frequency.

Adderall: When I tried increasing from 10 mg of Adderall to 20 mg in February, I became even more reactive to food. My migraine attacks lessened in severity and became more responsive to meds when I went back down to 10 mg. Last Monday, I stopped taking Adderall altogether. For the first few days, I thought my food reactivity decreased, but then it seemed to increase. After a few rough days, I resumed taking 10 mg yesterday. I’m still not sure what the ultimate verdict on Adderall will be, but I need to make it before I determine if I’ll stay on the diet or not.

Supplements: Starting supplements to counteract malnutrition is likely an ever bigger factor than either Zofran or Adderall. Most supplements I try, even in very small doses, trigger migraine attacks that are unresponsive to medication. Another problem is that the preferred supplement to manage elevated homocysteine (my current blood work red flag) is 5-MTHF. That’s the supplement that triggered pretty severe depression the last time I took it to manage elevated homocysteine caused by malnutrition.

Managing wildfires

Managing a ketogenic diet for migraine feels like trying to contain a series of wildfires. As soon as I think one fire is under control, another part of the forest goes up in flames. Or the wind shifts and the fire I thought was contained flares up again. In a few weeks I’ll have to decide whether to keep fighting the fire or just walk away. So far, the improvements aren’t substantial enough to risk further malnutrition. But I keep hoping that after some of the fires are under control, I will feel better enough that the improvements are worth the risk.